1 s t.and.2
n d T i m o t h y.(*):
'Timothy' means 'honouring God'. 1Timothy
was written by Paul to Timothy, who was a young
Paul's companion in many of his
Timothy's mother Eunice and
his grandmother Lois are mentioned as eminent
for their piety:.2Timothy
1:5. His father was a Greek and his mother a Jewess, who both obviously
brought their son up well:.2Timothy
The book of
was written about 66 or 67 A.D.
The book of 2Timothy
was probably written by Paul a
year or so after the first and from Rome where Paul was for a second time
T i t u s.(*):
means honourable. He was a Gentile
and with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, Greece accompanying
them to the council at Jerusalem:.Galatians
2:1-3; Acts 15:2. The book of Titus
was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to Timothy,
66 or 67 A.D.
P h i l e m o n.(*):
was written from Rome at the same time as the epistles to the Colossians
and Ephesians and
was sent also by Onesimus. It was addressed to Philemon and the members
of his family.
Philemon was an inhabitant
of Colosse and apparently a person of some note among the citizens. He
was brought to a knowledge of the gospel through the instrumentality of
Paul and held a prominent place in the Christian community for his piety
and beneficence. He is called in the epistle a "fellow-labourer" and therefore
probably held some office in the church
at Colosse Philemon 1:2; at all
events, the title denotes
that he took part in the
work of spreading a knowledge of the gospel.
H e b r e w s.(*):
wrote the book from Rome in 63 A.D.,
to those familiar with the sacrifices and offerings, etc. required under
old covenant. It was in all probability written at Rome, near the close
of Paul's two years' imprisonment. It was certainly written to Jewish converts
to the faith of the gospel, probably for the church at Jerusalem before
destruction of Jerusalem.
Its design was to show the
true end and meaning of the Mosaic system and its symbolical
character. It proves that the Levitical priesthood was a 'shadow' of that
of Christ and that the legal sacrifices prefigured
the great and all perfect sacrifice he offered for us.
It explains that the gospel
was designed, not to modify
law of Moses, but to supersede and abolish it. Its teaching was fitted,
as it was designed, to check that tendency to apostatize.(abandon).from
Christianity and to return to Judaism which now showed itself among certain
Jewish Christians. The supreme authority and the transcendent
glory of the gospel are clearly set forth and in such a way as to strengthen
and confirm their allegiance.(loyalty).to
This epistle shows Christ
as the end, foundation, body and truth of the figures of the law, which
of themselves were no virtue for the soul. The great truth set forth in
that Emmanuel of Nazareth is the true God.
The unconverted Jews used
many arguments to draw their converted brethren from the Christian faith.
They represented the law of Moses as superior to the Christian dispensation,
and spoke against every thing connected with the Saviour. The apostle therefore
shows to these somewhat bewildered new Christians the superiority of Emmanuel
as the Son of God and the benefits from his sufferings and death as the
sacrifice for sin, so that the Christian way is much more excellent and
perfect than that of Moses. And the principal design seems to be, to bring
the converted Hebrews forward in the knowledge of the gospel and thus to
establish them in the Christian faith and to prevent their turning from
it, against which they are earnestly warned.
J a m e s.(*):.Like
the name 'Jesus', there was no
letter 'J' till the 17th century A.D.,
so the name 'James' was actually 'Iacobos'.
This James was the author
of the epistle
which bears his name. He was the elder brother of John:.Mark
1:29. Both were sons of a woman named Salome and having a dad named
1:19,20. This distinguishes
this James from the other James.
Salome attended Emmanuel
on his journeys, helping out where she could:.Matthew
Tract Society: Her conception as to the true nature of Christ's
kingdom was no doubt changed by his crucifixion,
which she witnessed 'afar off'.(Mark
by his resurrection, of which she was early apprized
by the angels at the tomb:.Mark
From comparing Matthew
27:56 and John 19:25, it seems
to be that Salome was a sister of Mary the mother of Emmanuel.
Salome was also the name
of the daughter of Herodias;
a different Salome.
This James was surnamed
'the greater' or 'the elder', to distinguish him from James the younger,
the other James.
This James and John were
with Emmanuel when He was transfigured:.Matthew
This James, who wrote the
was a near kinsman
of Emmanuel and often called 'the Lord's brother':.Galatians
The place and time of the
writing of the book of James was Jerusalem,
where James was residing and from internal evidence, was the period between
two imprisonments at Rome, probably about 62 A.D.
He had a separate interview
with our Lord after his resurrection.(1Corinthians
is mentioned as one of the apostles of the circumcision:.Acts
1:13. He appears to have occupied the position of head of the Church
at Jerusalem, where he presided at the council held to consider the case
of the Gentiles:.Acts
Emmanuel especially had Peter,
James and John with Him a lot of the time:.Mark
1:29; 5:37; 9:2;
James 'the greater' was the
among the apostles and was put to death in 44 A.D. when king Herod
Agrippa-I beheaded him:.Acts
12:1,2. Don't know exactly why Herod beheaded him.
Perhaps because those who
heard him speak were offended at what he said. And perhaps because those
Jews of the Pharisee kind
influenced this Herod to eliminate those who had this message from God
about a kingdom to be set up and they felt it would be in competition to
the Old Testament Mosaic Law which they adhered to because of a holding
on to their control over others and any money donated by them.
James 'the greater' is called
James 'the Just' by Josephus
and is said to have been stoned to death. The epistle of James is ascribed
to him by those who distinguish him from James the Less.
James the younger.also
called James the less.
He, like the elder James called James the
greater, was one of the twelve disciples/apostles.
His father was a man named.Alphaeus.(Matthew
19:25. The mother of this James the less was a woman named Mary. His
brothers were Joses and Judas:.Matthew
27:56; Mr 15:40. He is called 'the less', meaning 'the younger', to
distinguish him from James the son of Zebedee.
James the less had brothers
named Joses and Judas:.Matthew
27:56; Mark 15:40. James the
less means he was younger and smaller in stature
than James the son of Zebedee, who was called James the greater.
of all the apostles. Besides these, there were many more disciples:.Acts